Glossary & Definitions

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic auto-immune disease that affects your joints. It’s usually progressive and can cause joint damage, pain, and swelling.

Lupus: Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease. It’s in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells. Lupus can affect any part of your body, including your skin, kidneys, blood cells, and heart.

Steroid: Steroids are drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and other conditions. One can take it by mouth. They include corticosteroids (such as prednisone or hydrocortisone). To add, they also include inhaled steroids (such as fluticasone propionate or budesonide).

NSAIDs or Non-Steroid Agents: NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or naproxen can reduce swelling. Rheumatoid arthritis causes it, but they don’t work as well as steroids to help slow damage to your joints.

Prescription: It’s a written order. It is to a licensed healthcare professional (such as a doctor). He or she authorizes the person to dispense, sell, or administer a controlled drug.

Oxycodone: Oxycodone is an opioid pain reliever and cough suppressant. You can use it in the treatment of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. It is usually taken by mouth, but one can take it into a muscle through injection.

Immune System: It is a collection of specialized cells, tissues, and organs. They work together to protect your body against disease.

NNRTIs: The full form is Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs). One can use it as initial therapy in combination with other antiretroviral agents. They have stronger antiviral activity than NRTIs. But they are less potent against suppressed cells and have a slower onset of actions.

NRTIs: The full form is Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs). They work by blocking the action of reverse transcriptase. It is important for viral DNA synthesis. They are effective in treating HIV infections both among adults and children. It’s in resource-poor settings.

Doctor: A doctor is a person who has completed a course of study in medicine. That’s how a doctor becomes licensed to practice medicine.

Lactic Acid: It is the main component of milk, and you can find it in any food (fermented). Some fermented foods contain large amounts of lactic acid, such as sauerkraut.

Pregnancy: Pregnancy is a time when your body needs more calcium and vitamin D than usual. This is because you’re producing more bone tissue during pregnancy. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, talk to your doctor. You can discuss how much calcium you should take each day!

Direct Acting Antivirals: One can use it to treat many different viral infections. They include antiviral medications for some viruses. It can be such as the herpes virus; antiviral medications for HIV/AIDs, hepatitis C.

Viral Load: Viral load is a measure of the amount of virus in a blood sample. One can use it to determine the amount of virus that is circulating in the body.

Bloodwork: Bloodwork is the use of blood samples to test for specific diseases.

Hepatitis C Test: It’s a medical test. It can help you determine if you have been exposed to Hepatitis C. This test can tell if your immune system is good. Plus, if it’s effective at fighting off Hepatitis C.

Health Insurance: Insurance that pays for medical care. The plan can pay for your doctor’s visits and prescription drugs. It may also cover other services such as physical therapy and occupational therapy. It may also provide limited benefits for mental health and dental care.

Daklinza: It’s a nucleotide analog inhibitor of the HCV NS5B polymerase. It’s essential for HCV replication. Daklinza binds to and inhibits the activity of NS5B in vitro and in vivo.

SVR: The full form follows as Sustained Virological Response. It’s a therapy that results in the elimination of HCV RNA from a person’s blood. One can do it by daily treatment with interferon and ribavirin.

Vosevi: It’s a hepatitis C genotype. One can use it to identify patients at higher risk for complications.

Genotype or Genotype (Hepatitis C Genotype): The term refers to the particular combination. It can be variations of the six genes that determine a person’s susceptibility. The susceptibility is for the hepatitis C virus.

Ribavirin: It is a drug. It treats chronic hepatitis C. It helps the body fight off infection by virus, bacteria, and fungi. You take it by mouth or injection.

Cancer: It is a disease. It causes cells in the body to grow and multiply without control. There are two types of cancer. The first is Primary and the second is Secondary. Primary cancers develop from normal, healthy cells in the body. While secondary cancers develop from abnormal cells that grow out of control.

Antiretrovirals Drugs: Antiretrovirals are a class of drugs that treat HIV. They include protease inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. These drugs slow the replication of HIV and prevent it from making more copies of itself in the body.

Interferons: They are proteins. Find them in our bodies that help fight viruses like Hepatitis C and influenza. Use them to treat Hepatitis C and some cancers.

Side Effects: Call it unwanted reactions to medicine or procedure. They can range from mild to severe and may be temporary or permanent. Side effects may occur at any time. It can be during treatment with the medication. They usually appear shortly after you start taking it. The side effects are not always predictable. They go away when treatment continues.

Liver Transplant: It is an operation. A healthy liver gets removed from one person and transplanted into another person. It is that person who’s own healthy liver is not working well. In some cases, heavy alcohol use can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and failure of the organ. It can cause bleeding or swelling of the abdomen.

Chronic Kidney Disease: It’s a progressive disease that affects the kidneys. It leads to kidney failure. It occurs when the kidney loses their ability to function and filter out waste products from the body.

Dialysis: It is a treatment that uses a machine to remove excess water and other wastes from the blood. So, they can return to the body’s circulation.

Direct Acting Antivirals or DAAs: They are drugs that fight viruses. They are not antibiotics. They don’t treat bacterial infections. Instead, they work by blocking the virus’s ability to replicate new copies of itself.

Depression: It’s a mental illness that causes a person to have low moods or lost interest. It’s in the activities they once enjoyed!

Anxiety: It’s an emotion that accompanies thoughts about situations that make you worry. With anxiety, you may feel tense, nervous, or restless. Anxiety can also cause physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat and sweating.

Anemia: It’s a condition in which your red blood cells become too small. It’s because there are not enough of them. Anemia can occur from losing too much blood due to injury or illness or from having anemia for a long time.

Reactivation Of Hepatitis B Virus: It is when the Hepatitis B virus comes back to life. It was dormant for some time. This can happen if a person gets infected with HBV as a child or has not got vaccinated against it since then. An HBV infection can lead to liver cancer and cirrhosis, both conditions with no cure.

AIDS: The full form stands as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV causes it. It’s a virus that causes AIDS. People who have HIV are unable to fight off infections. It’s because the body’s immune system gets damaged by the infection.

Jaundice: Call it yellow fever. It is a condition in which the skin and eyes appear yellowish or pale. It occurs when the liver is unable to process bilirubin. It’s a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown.

Chronic: Chronic means a condition that has lasted for several months or years.

Acute: Acute means an injury or illness that is present for a small amount of time.

Viral Hepatitis: It refers to a group of diseases caused by viruses that affect the liver. The most common type of Hepatitis A, which spreads through contaminated food or water. It can cause symptoms such as fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In some cases, it can lead to liver failure or death.

Blood Transfusion: Blood transfusion is considered a low-risk transmission route for hepatitis B if the donor has tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-hepatitis B). This means that the person receiving the blood has a lower risk of getting hepatitis B than someone who receives blood from an individual who doesn’t have immunity against the virus.

Hepatitis A Vaccine: The hepatitis A vaccine is given as a single dose inactivated vaccine that protects against HAV infection for at least one year. The inactivated injectable vaccine remains stable for at least 12 months from the date of manufacture.

Hepatitis B Vaccine: The hepatitis B vaccine works by preventing you from getting hepatitis B. It doesn’t treat your existing infection or make you immune to the virus. If you have already been diagnosed with hepatitis B, it may be possible for you to become immune to the virus through vaccination or natural infection.

AML Cancer: The full form is Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). It’s a cancer that develops in the blood cells. It is especially in the white blood cells. The disease affects older adults and is more common in older adults than any other type of cancer.

SLL Cancer: The full form is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). It’s a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect many organs and systems in the body. SLE presents as an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the skin. It can be in joints, kidneys, and heart.

CLL Cancer: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is also known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It is a form of leukemia where there are abnormal lymphocytes (plasma cells) in the blood and bone marrow.

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